Engineering -- an endless frontier
      home technology engineering branches engineer history essays bibliography  
aero   biological   chemical   civil   computer   electrical   environmental   mechanical   nuclear   systems
Chemical engineering
Chemical engineers integrate chemistry and physics to create an engineering science that contributes much to the rapid rise and economic competitiveness of many industries.  A good view of the chemical engineering profession is available at



Furter, W. F. ed. 1980.  History of Chemical Engineering.  Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.

Hougen, O. A. 1977.  Seven Decades of Chemical Engineering.  Chemical Engineering Progress, 73(1): 89-104.

Landau, R. 1997.  Education: Moving from chemistry to chemical engineering and beyond.  Chemical Engineering Progress, 93(1): 52-65.

Pigford, R. L. 1976.  Chemical technology: the past 100 years.  Chemical and Engineering News, Centennial issue, April 6, 1976, pp. 190-203.

Scriven, L. E. 1991.  On the emergence and evolution of chemical engineering.  in Perspectives in Chemical Engineering, C. K. Colton, ed. Boston: Academic Press, pp.3-40.

Wintermantel, K. 1999.  Process and product engineering – achievements, present and future challenges.  Chemical Engineering Science, 54: 1601-20.


Appl, M. 1982.  The Haber-Bosch process and the development of chemical engineering.  In A Century of Chemical Engineering, ed. W. F. Furter, New York: Plenum; pp. 29-54.

Brock, W. H. 1992.  History of Chemistry.  New York: Norton.

Colton, C. K. ed. 1991.  Perspectives in Chemical Engineering.  Boston: Academic.

Elder, A. I. 1970.  The history of penicillin production.  Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium, 66, No. 100.

Eyring, H. 1976. Physical chemical: the past 100 years.  Chemical and Engineering News, April: 88-109.

Hobby, G. L. 1985.  Penicillin: Meeting the Challenge.  New Haven: Yale University Press.

Jefferson, E. D. 1988.  The emergence of chemical engineering as a multidiscipline.  Chemical Engineering Progress, 84(1): 21-3.

Landau, R. 1994.  Uncaging Animal Spirits: Essays in Engineering, Entrepreneurship, and Economics.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Lewis, W. K. 1959.  Evolution of the unit operations.  Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series, 55(26): 1-8.

Ponton, J. 1995.  Process systems engineering: halfway through the first century.  Chemical Engineering Science, 50: 4045-4059.

Reynolds, T. S. 1983.  75 Years of Progress: a History of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.  NY: AIChE Press.

Santen, R. A. van. 1995.  Catalysis: closing the molecular and macroscopic science gap.  Chemical Engineering Science, 50: 4027-44.

Scriven, L. E. 1987.  The role of past, current, and future technologies in chemical engineering.  Chemical Engineering Progress, 83(12): 65-9.

Servos, J. W. 1980.  The industrial relations of science: chemical engineering at MIT, 1900-1939.  ISIS, 71: 531-49.


ACS and AIChE, Technology vision 2020, the US chemical industry. www.che,

Mascone, C. F. 1999.  Engineering the next millennium.  Chemical Engineering Progress, 95(10): 102-13.

NRC (National Research Council). 1988.  Frontiers in Chemical Engineering.  Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.

Industrial research

Beer, J. J. 1958.  Coal tar dye manufacture and the origin of modern industrial research laboratory.  Isis 49, part 2 (156): 123-31.

Homburg, E. 1992.  The emergence of research laboratories in the dyestuffs industry, 1870-1900.  British Journal of History of Science, 25: 91-111.

Hounshell, D. A. and Smith, J. K. 1988.  Science and Corporate Strategy: DuPont R&D 1902-1980.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Chemical processing industries

Arora, A. and Gambardella, A. 1998.  Evolution of industry structure in the chemical industry.  In Arora et al (1998), pp. 379-414.

Arora, A. and Rosenberg, N. 1998.  Chemicals, a U.S. success story.  In Arora et al. (1998), pp. 71-102.

Arora, A., Landau, R., and Rosenberg, N., eds. 1998.  Chemicals and Long-term Economic Growth.  New York: Wiley.

Enos, J. L. 1962.  Petroleum Progess and Profit.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Haber, L. F. 1958.  The Chemistry Industry During the Nineteenth Century.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Haber, L. F. 1971.  The Chemical Industry: 1900-1930.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Homburg, E., Travis, A. S., and Schröder, H. G., eds. 1998.  The Chemistry Industry in Europe, 1850-1914: Industrial Growth, Pollution, and Professionalization.  Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Kropp, E. P. 1997.  The chemical process industries: broadening the bases.  Chemical Engineering Progress, 93(1): 42-51.

Smith, J. K. 1993.  The evolution of the chemical industry: a technological perspective.  In Chemical Sciences in the Modern World, ed. S. H. Mauskopf, Philidelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 117-57.

Spitz, P. H. 1988.  Petrochemicals: The Rise of an Industry.  New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Technology and economic competitiveness

Arora, A., Landau, R., and Rosenberg, N., eds. 1998.  Chemicals and Long-term Economic Growth.  New York: Wiley.

Landau, R. 1994.  Uncaging Animal Spirits: Essays in Engineering, Entrepreneurship, and Economics.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Landau, R. and Rosenberg, N. 1992.  Successful commercialization in the chemical process industries.  In Technology and the Wealth of Nations, eds. N. Rosenberg, R. Landau, and D. C. Mowery, Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 73-120.

Rosenberg, N. 1998.  Technological change in chemicals: the role of university-industry relations.  In Arora et al. (1998), pp. 193-230.